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Kirzhinova K.N.


Adyghe State University


Article reflects results of research of pressing questions of power supply of the regions functioning in the conditions of insufficiency of own fuel and energy resources. The basic problems of power scarce regional systems are opened and possible directions of their decision are presented.

Keywords: energy; regional energy system; power deficiency; disproportions; power reform.

The analysis of a condition and tendencies of development of a fuel and energy complex of Russia, research of the basic laws of functioning of power systems and world experience of provision of energy has allowed to outline a circle of the problems, making the most essential impact on region power.

Object of research are the fuel and energy system of Russia, representing a complex of interconnected regional power supply systems, different as as initial operating conditions (climatic, stocks of power resources, population), and a power level of development (from the point of view of efficiency of use of existing conditions) has served. The regions characterized by high level of power security, with large supplies of fuel and energy resources and concerning low cost of energy have been excluded from the analysis, unit as questions, actual for economic systems in which the fuel and energy complex is leading economically significant branch considerably differ that dare in power scarce regions.

The majority of regions of Russia don't provide balance of supply and demand of power resources at the expense of the sources which are in territory of the subject, covering a lack by acquisition of heat, energy or energy carriers at other regions.

The current situation reasons are in the following: power resources are extremely non-uniformly distributed on territory of the country. The basic stocks of fuel and energy resources are concentrated in east regions of Russia (Siberia and the Far East), characterized by low population density, far from the basic consumers. Involving of these resources in economic circulation appears inexpedient from the economic point of view.

Distinctions in stocks of power resources and cost of their use in various regions lead to occurrence of a problem of disproportions in level of their power self-sufficiency. In Power strategy of Russia to 2030 [1] smoothing of the given disproportions it is noted as one of the most important problems of a power policy of Russia in sphere of regulation of regional power supply systems.

According to Lukashov G. A [2] there are two ways of minimization of this disproportions: development of a regional and inter-regional power infrastructure; increase of level of self-sufficiency of scarce regions.

Choosing a way, it is important to estimate possibilities of satisfaction region of the energy needs, first of all cost of the energy received in a mode of a self-sufficiency. Probably that its transportation for the given territory will be more favorable because of high cost of development of local generation. In such cases development of a power infrastructure will appear more comprehensible.

The second way becomes possible after revision of structure of regional fuel and energy balances as regarding energy use, giving a maximum of attention to questions of power savings and rational use of available power resources, and regarding sources of reception of energy and an estimation of possibilities of reasonable involving in system of power supply of the subject of additional sources, including nonconventional (renewed) sources, which weren't considered earlier at the analysis of power self-sufficiency of regional economic systems.

As shows world experiment, leaders in development of manufacture of energy from nonconventional sources are the countries which have deficiency in traditional own fuel and energy resources: Iceland (about 25 % it is necessary on a share of renewed energy sources, basically is used energy of geothermal sources), Denmark (20,6 %, the basic source – wind power), Portugal (18 %, the basic sources – energy of waves, the sun and a wind), Spain (17,7 %, the basic source – solar energy) and New Zealand (15,1 %, basically is used energy of geothermal sources and a wind) [3]. The lack of fuel resources should lead to search of other alternatives and in power scarce regions of Russia.

The analysis of bases of legislative regulation of power sphere at the state level shows that in the present conditions the preference is given to the second way (increase of level of self-sufficiency of scarce regions). According to a strategic target of the regional power policy fixed in Power strategy to 2030 [1] actions of authorities of subjects should be directed on creation of system of maintenance of regional power safety steady and capable to self-regulation taking into account optimization of territorial structure of manufacture and consumption of fuel and energy resources that assumes increase of independence of regions in the decision of questions of power supply, including control over rational use of power resources and the power savings, manufacture of thermal and electric energy, and also search of new ways of independent satisfaction of requirements of the industry and the region population in energy.

The electric power industry of Russia throughout considerable time of the existence developed on the first way. System functioning in a former mode have considered inefficient for some reasons, from which deterioration of the equipment became main. Growth of non-payments in all spheres including in the electric power industry, become by result of economic Russian crisis of 90th, limitation of budgetary financing have led to actual absence of means for building new and modernizations of existing generating capacities and electric mains. Process of updating of the basic means has practically stopped.

The solution of a problem demanded revision and the qualitative change of all management structure of power branch promoting attraction of investments into power. However the decision of questions of financing of power sphere has led to occurrence of some problems of institutional character. The power system of Soviet Union as a result of power reform has been changed; there was a technological and commercial infrastructure of the market of the electric power, new participants of market relations. The market of electro power services is generated.

Not all changes have well affected functioning of power sphere, a number of the system errors, one of which have been admitted, for example, - to consider repairs in power universal and competitive. Repair shops, as a rule, it is rigid enough from the technological point of view are adhered to that station under which they were projected. The basic file of operating power objects was created in the last century, the equipment of each station for years of its work, taking into account all spent repairs, became unique, and to carry out repairs at such stations in the economic way would be more convenient and cheaper. After reforming and change of the proprietor as a result of corporate contradictions many line fault services at stations have stopped existence. Finally, it has led only to increase in expenses and still большему to deficiency of financial assets.

To develop optimum and accurate rules of functioning of power in new market conditions, time and constant perfection of legal bases of power branch, in particular the is standard-legal base concretizing positions of the federal power legislation to make a game rule in the power market by more transparent is necessary.

Regulation of investment activity in power branch also remains an important problem of economic management of power branch. Large innovative projects are extremely necessary for the Russian power. The industrial potential of a fuel and energy complex of Russia considerably lags behind today world scientifically-technological level, despite available workings out. Objects of power are characterized by high degree of the deterioration leading to decrease of reliability of power supply, work on the lowered capacities, to low level of safety on objects and to breakdown susceptibility increase, and also to inevitable growth of losses for which the consumer duly pays. High degree of deterioration of generating capacities also conducts to low efficiency of processing of fuel in the electric power. According to the Department of Energy, the efficiency of thermal power stations of Russia makes only 36,6 % at 40–45 % in foreign countries. Thus, about 10 % of consumed fuel in Russia is burned for nothing.

In the circumstances global modernization and transition to new technological level by introduction of new power technologies in manufacture, distribution and transmission of energy is necessary for a fuel and energy complex.

However technological problems are not exclusively internal problems of power, they are characteristic practically for all branches of economy and make indirect impact and on a condition of a power system. The Russian industry differs high power consumption (old power-intensive technologies and the equipment prevail). For dollar of a created internal national produce the domestic economy consumes in 3–4 times more than conditional fuel, than economy of the developed countries, and in 2.5 times more than on the average the whole world. The decision of the given problem should be promoted by economy of power resources and reduction of losses, structural shifts aside less power-consuming industries, and also working out and introduction of new power saving up technologies [4].

Also for modern Russian power the question of deficiency of qualified personnel is actually. According to experts, the inefficient organization of work and shortage of the personnel will be the major factors constraining development of national economy the next 10-15 years.

The reasons of personnel deficiency existing in power as in outflow of experts from power sphere in other industries, as a rule, with higher salary, and in a low share of the young experts, coming to work on the power enterprises after the termination of training. A consequence of a staff deficit in power is their inevitable ageing.

For the decision of an existing problem expedient there would be an attraction of the power enterprises, both the generating companies, and the organizations which are engaged in distribution and transfer of thermal and electric energy, to participation in preparation of experts. Possibility of inclusion by the organization of expenses to the aid of the educational institutions which are engaged in preparation of experts of the corresponding profile, in the cost price of made energy or rendered services, would allow to involve the enterprises in financial participation in a professional training, to assistance in equipment of establishments of vocational training by material base necessary for educational process.

Granting to students of base for passage of an industrial practice, payment of grants to the pupil of power faculties or payment on a contract basis studies of students at the second level of higher education (in a magistracy), with their subsequent employment could become alternative support. Creation of own educational centers of preparation and improvement of professional skill of employees at the power companies, use in practice of activity of the enterprises of an internal training for a new profession of the workers having other specialties, also promotes a solution of a problem of shortage of experts.

All listed questions are interconnected, improvement of a condition and development of a fuel and energy complex of region will be promoted only by their complex decision. Besides listed, the most widespread and acute problems, characteristic for the majority of power scarce regions, there are also specific ones, peculiar to concrete territories. Therefore the basic part of the actions directed on increase of efficiency of functioning of power supply systems, should be realized at regional level taking into account territorial features.



  1. Energy Strategy of Russia until 2030 / Order of the Government of the Russian Federation from 13.11.2009 № 1715-r
  2. Lukashov, GA. Methodological approaches to assess the energy potential of the region. // Electronic scientific journal "Oil and Gas Business", 2011, № 2 - p.347-354
  3. Ragin E. Development of alternative energy in Russia. // An Internet resource: http://www.finmarket.ru/z/nws/pressinf.asp?id=1260203&rid=6
  4. Volkov, LV Restructuring in Russia: interim results and future plans // Effective crisis management. - 2010. - № 2. - p. 74-81



Секции-декабрь 2011
  • "Современные проблемы и пути их решения в науке, транспорте, производстве и образовании'2011"
  • Дата: Октябрь 2011 года
  • Проведение: www.sworld.com.ua
  • Рабочие языки: Украинский, Русский, Английский.
  • Председатель: Доктор технических наук, проф.Шибаев А.Г.
  • Тех.менеджмент: к.т.н. Куприенко С.В., Федорова А.Д.

  • Сборник научных трудов SWorld по материалам международной научно-практической конференции.